Although all these design features would help discourage criminal activity; the best approach would be to make activity inside the lobby visible from the street. This employs the principle of natural surveillance. Changing the texture of the flooring bet
Adding a bright light over the entrance door
Separating the lobby and the street with a large expanse of glass
Changing the paving texture at the property line
Clearly marking entrance with a “Residents Only” sign
The standoff distance is the space between a building and the potential location of a blast threat. For blast protection, this distance should be maximized because blast energy decreases exponentially with increased distance between the source of the blas
Perimeter defense area
Blast reduction zone
If 95% or more of the existing building’s structure, exterior walls, and roof are reused, the LEED 2009 NC rating system awards three points, one point each for reaching levels of 55%, 75%, and 95% (MR Credits 1.1 through 1.3). Window assemblies and nonst
Maintain at least 50% of the interior non-structural elements
Maintain at least 95% of the existing walls, floors, and roof
Remove the building and recycle and/or salvage at least 50% of construction and demolition debris
Reuse materials from the site that amount to 5%, by cost, of the total value of materials on the project
Radon detection and remediation can be done by anyone, from homeowners to specialty contractors. PVC can be removed by anyone. Asbestos, lead, PCBs, and vermiculite all must be handled by a certified contractor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Pervious paving allows rainwater to soak into the ground while providing support for parking or other outdoor activities. Cisterns are designed for holding rainwater for further use, not to minimize the runoff. Riprap is stone reinforcement for the banks
Minnesota has a cool to cold climate. South-facing windows are good for passive solar heat gain. A compact form minimizes the surface area to reduce heat loss during the winter. Dark colors absorb more solar radiation than light colors.
Use dark colors for the building exterior
Maximize south-facing windows
Minimize interior thermal mass
Incorporate high ceilings
Use evergreen trees on the south side of the building
Design a compact form
A life-cycle assessment evaluate the environmental impact of a particular material over its entire useful life, including disposal. It could be used to compare the impacts of two or more materials so the architect could select the most sustainable one.
Matrix comparison chart
Environmental impact study
Five times the height of the trees
Three times the height of the trees
Nine times the height of the trees
Seven times the height of the trees
Using reflective glass on the west side of the building
Designing an overhang for the west and east sides of the building
Planning a building shape to minimize the surface area of south-facing walls
Having a landscape architect specify deciduous trees near the south elevation
Model codes prescribe a minimum corridor width of 44 in, with various exceptions. Corridors in a residential occupancies or those serving an occupant load of less than 50 may be 36 in wide. Other occupancies require wider corridors, but B occupancies (off
Providing for a 5 ft turning circle requires the most space of the four choices listed. If the turning circle is provided, it is very likely that a 36 in access space and clear space at the towel dispenser will also be available. The maneuvering space on
Maneuvering space on the outside of the entry door to the room
Clear space at towel dispensers and full-height mirrors
Minimum 36 in access route into and through the room
5ft clear circular turnaround space
Any exit door must provide a clear width of at least 32 in. Three 36 in doors would be acceptable, but the question asks for the minimally acceptable solution, which is two 36 in doors; this would provide approximately 66 in of width (considering the clea
Three 32 in doors remotely located
Two 36 in doors on opposite sides of the building
A pair of 30 in entry doors and a 36 in door remotely located
Three 36 in doors remotely located from each other
The floor area ratio expresses the relationship between the square footage of the building and the area of the site on which it is constructed. Zoning ordinances often set limits on the maximum floor area ratio allowed within a region as a means of contro
0.3 : 1
0.1 : 1
0.6 : 1
1 : 1
Zoning regulations limit total building area based on floor area by construction type and occupancy group. Bulk plane limits may affect the area by limiting height in some cases, but they are not a primary determinant. Of the options given, the floor area
Floor area ratio and construction type
Occupancy group and setback requirements
Bulk plane limits and floor area ratio
Construction type and setback requirements
The three wind exposure categories are labeled BC and D. The most severe wind exposure is in category D, which refers to flat and unobstructed terrain near large bodies of water. Category B refers to urban and suburban wooded area and terrain with obstruc
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