The renal system has four major functions in the body. One is regulating vitamin D activation, which helps maintain and regulate calcium levels. Vitamins A, B, and C are not associated with this function.
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. There are about 2.4 million nephrons in an adult. These structures filter fluid and make urine. The glomerulus is a tuft of blood vessels with a capillary-like endothelium that allows easy passage of fluid
Approximately 125 mL of fluid is filtered out of the glomerulus each minute. About 99% is returned to the blood stream as the filtrate progresses through the renal tubule. Approximately 1% or 2,000 mL of fluid is excreted each day in the form of urine. Th
The countercurrent mechanism in the medullary nephrons acts to concentrate or dilute urine. It does not promote sodium excretion nor does it block the effects of aldosterone. This mechanism does not stimulate ADH release.
Concentrate or dilute the urine
Block the effects of aldosterone
Stimulate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release
Promote sodium excretion
The renin–angiotensin system causes vasoconstriction to improve blood flow to the fragile nephrons. Baroreceptors are not found in the renal artery. Increased sweating is not a reflex reaction to increased total body water. ADH is released in response to
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release in response to increased blood volume or decreased osmolarity
Increased sweating when total water volume becomes too great
Baroreceptor monitoring of the renal artery
The renin–angiotensin system, causing vasoconstriction
When nephrons are lost, as in renal failure, the juxtaglomerular cells that produce erythropoietin are also lost leading to a decrease in red blood cell production and anemia. Urea, renin, and hydrogen do not affect red blood cell production and are not a
PTH acts at the distal convoluted tubule to stimulate the reabsorption of calcium to increase serum calcium levels; if it is not present, the calcium is lost. Calcium is filtered at the glomerulus and mostly reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule an
The loop of Henle
The distal convoluted tubule
The proximal convoluted tubule
Tubular secretion is the movement of solutes from the capillary bed into the renal tubule. Glomerular filtration is the passing of fluid from the capillary system into the renal tubule in Bowman's capsule. Tubular reabsorption is the movement of solutes f
Potassium concentration is regulated throughout the tubules with aldosterone being the strongest influence for loss. Renin activates angiotensinogen, which becomes angiotensin I. Antidiuretic hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the poste
In the male, the urethra leaves the urinary bladder and passes through the prostate gland. The renal calyx and cortex are located in the kidney and the urethra does not pass through the kidney. The vas deferens delivers the sperm from the testicles to the
If potassium levels are very high, the retention of sodium in exchange for potassium also leads to retention of water and a dilution of blood volume, which decreases potassium concentration. Dehydration is a lack of volume in the blood vessels, which can
The various substances normally filtered by the glomerulus, reabsorbed by the tubules, and excreted in the urine include sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid. Within the tubule, some of these substances are se
Bicarbonate and urea
Creatinine and chloride
Blood cells and protein
Potassium and sodium
Regulation of blood pressure is also a function of the kidney. Specialized vessels of the kidney called the vasa recta constantly monitor blood pressure as blood begins its passage into the kidney. When the vasa recta detect a decrease in blood pressure,
The macula densa consists of immune system cells and chemicals that can respond quickly to any cellular damage or injury. The juxtaglomerular apparatus produce erythropoietin and renin. The Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system works to maintain blood flow
Only 25% of the total number of nephrons is necessary to maintain healthy renal function so most patients must have experienced nephron loss of at least 75% to have signs and symptoms of kidney failure. The other options are not correct.
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