Immune protection by immunoglobulins
source of vitamin E and vitamin B12 to help protect cell structure and making healthy red blood cells
Optimum nutrition, ideal source of energy, quickly absorbed
Promote development in the form of growth factors and hormones
source of long chain polyunsaturates omega 3 and 6
only indicated if vulnerable and symptomatic
lead to unnecessary intervention
prevent pathological neonatal hypoglycaemia
termed a proactive approach
Infants whose mothers have taken betablockers
Neonatal hyperinsulinism (congenital disorder)(may have macrosomic or dymorphic appearance)
Preterm (< 37 weeks gestation)
Suspected or early onset sepsis
Large for gestational age (LGA babies)
Small for gestational age (SGA babies)
Pituitary or adrenal insufficiency
Inborn errors of metabolism (e.g.Family history of MCADD)
Moderate to severe perinatal hypoxia ischaemia
Infants whose mothers have taken pethidine
At term fetal The process of glycogenesis and glycogen storage occurs in the liver. glycogen stores: hepatic stores twice those of an adult cardiac stores are increased ten fold
glucose diffuses across the placental villi by the trophoblast cell lining.
A continuous supply of glucose is provided via facilitated diffusion
By 20 to 24 weeks of gestation the fetus begins to store glycogen in the kidneys
The majority of fetal energy needs are supplied by maternal metabolism via placental circulation
Fetal glucose uptake is proportional to maternal glucose concentrations
During 3rd trimester of pregnancy glycogen storage decreases in cardiac and skeletal muscle
newborn blood glucose will then begin to rise, regardless of whether or not the baby has been fed
blood glucose concentration begins to fall and continues to decrease until around 2 to 4 hrs
Inhibiting insulin secretion
Breaking down glycogen reserves in the liver and kidney (glycogenolysis)
Synthesising glucose from liver substrates (gluconeogenesis)
Storing glucose in the form of glycogen (by glycogenesis)
Inhibiting glucose secretion
ketoacidosis is a normal physiological process
Generating alternative fuel e.g. ketone bodies released from adipose tissue (fat)
Expulsion of placenta opens receptor sites, surges of prolactin prime the receptor sites Unprimed receptor sites shut down, reducing potential for milk production
long term milk supply is affected
The receptor sites on the lactocytes (acini cells) are not ‘primed’
The receptor sites on the lactocytes (acini cells) are ‘primed’ as a result of placental expulsion
unprimed lactocytes begin to deteriorate and ‘shut down’
is not important as newborns have the ability to counter-regulate
6 hours of age
2 hours of age
32 weeks gestation
24 hours of age
Mary was born by forceps at 40 weeks gestation, her weight was 2460g. She is skin to skin.
Robbie has just had a normal birth at 35 weeks gestation. His APGAR scores were 9 and 10 and the baby is skin to skin with mother.
You have just taken baby Jonnie’s temperature. It is 34.8°C
Lizzie gave birth last evening. She is taking labetalol 200mg BD for essential hypertension.
Jennie had a caesarean section at 42 weeks for fetal distress. Her baby required resuscitation at birth but responded well and is now skin to skin.
Josie the mother, is five days postnatal and has just finished a course of antibiotics for UTI
Angie gave birth in the water at 39 weeks gestation. Her baby is now skin to skin and suckling at the breast
Jess was born at home at 42 weeks gestation. She weighed 4200g at birth. Had skin to skin at birth and rooted but did not feed at the breast. It is now six hours later.
너는 정확하게 대답했다.
당신이 잘못 대답했습니다.
너는 시간이 없어.
점수 또는 평점을 저장하려면 로그인하거나 등록해야합니다.
텍스트에 적합한 오디오 언어를 설정하십시오.
단어를 강조 표시하여 학습을 향상시킵니다.
로그인 할 필요없이 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 재생할 수 있습니다. 그러나 점수를 저장하고 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 만들려면 로그인해야합니다. 오디오를 재생하려면 전문 계정에 로그인해야합니다.
학습을 한 차원 높여보십시오. 프로페셔널 계정으로 업그레이드하면 질문을 큰소리로 듣고 다른 많은 혜택을 누릴 수 있습니다.
귀하가 작성한 질문이나 답변에 대한 오디오가 생성됩니다.
많은 사람들이 그들이 배운 것을 듣고 더 잘 배웁니다. 외국어 학습을 위해 우리는 18 개 이상의 언어를 지원했습니다.
지원 언어로는 덴마크어, 네덜란드어, 영어, 프랑스어, 독일어, 아이슬란드 어, 이탈리아어, 일본어, 한국어, 노르웨이어, 폴란드어, 포르투갈어, 루마니아어, 러시아어, 스페인어, 스웨덴어, 터키어, 웨일스 어 등이 있습니다.
또한 단어를 소리내어 읽음으로써 자동 단어 단위 강조 기능을 지원합니다.
Apple App Store에서 볼 Topgrade 응용 프로그램을 선택하십시오.
Google Play에서 볼 수있는 Topgrade 앱을 선택합니다.