over the court; In all
courts (courts of
for making sure that the correct
are followed. Judges also ensure that the rules of
are followed. These set the
guidelines for evidence and clarifies that both sides get a chance to
. They're supposed to manage cases as well by setting
for the case to reach court and it rules on
matters so that
can be used efficiently.
, Courts and Enforcement act was created in
. In it contains all of the
in the qualifications needed to become a
. It states that you do in fact need
qualifications to become a judge. Prior to the
were the only people who could apply for judicial
has been opened up to people beyond lawyers. Individuals of the Institute of
(ILEX) has made it possible for registered patents/trade
to apply for certain
and amendments act 2007 contains the most recent changes to the qualifications
needed to become a part of the
. It also states that its necessary to have relevant legal qualifications (e.g. being a
)However there are other ways of qualifying as a
for example by being a university
, a text book
and acting as an arbitrator or
.who advises on the law and drafts
A reform also came from the act that a respective
and 7 years must be worked reguarding law before a person can
to become a judge whereas before, for lower level posts, a potential judge must've worked in the law was
years for lower level posts and 10 for more senior posts.
These are usually
professors who can be be appointed as
judges even if they've never practiced as lawyers. This can also be furthered where as they can become
.(e.g. Lady hale who was an academic who was promoted to become a law
[now a supreme court justice]).
and circuit judges are all
judges and are appointed by the judicial
commission (created under the
and officialy started work in
2006. Positions are advertised widely and the commission runs events designed to communicate and explain the appointments system to potential applicants in order to encourage a wide range of applicants.
The powers relating to recommendation for appointment has been limited by the
. He can refuse a candidate
time before they must be accepted or they can ask the commission to reconsider whereas he has to provide a
for doing so. The applicant can also apply themselves however in both situations, the applicant must fill out an
and are asked to nominate between 3 and
referees. The JAC also lets them know who they are consulting about their application e.g. existing
. For lower level posts, the applicant may have to do an essay/
. For the best candidtaes, an
date will be agreed and the interview may consist of role play or taking part in
. The final selections will then be passed on to the
who has the decision weather or not to appoint them.
the constitutional reform act
is why we now use the
to select judges but of course the Lord chancelor still has to
The supreme court was established in
where as all the judges from the house
were made into judges of the
court. Part 3 of the constitutional
act 2005 sets out how judges for new appointment are selected;
When there's a
, a supreme court selection commission must be conviend by the
of the court.
This has to include the president and the deputy president of the supreme court and atleast one member of the
(1 from the UK, 1 from Scottland and 1 from Northern Ireland)who decides on the section process to be used. After the selection process designated is complete to select a
, the selection is reported to the
for to be accepted and then the
will appoint them.
Lord justice of appeal
District judge (Magistrates)
The selection process has been criticized by many people due to it's
nature. Less than 50% of each type of judge are
especially when it comes to the
level judges. Before the constitutional reform act 2005, The
you and he also the files kept by her were sworn to
. This created speculation about a old
which made it
likely for females to be selected (however new
methods have improved this). Ethnic
are another group of people who aren't properly represented when it comes to judges. Less than
% of recorders, 3% of
judges and 5% of deputy district judges are
minorities. In 2012, 4% of judges were ethnic minorities which is un-
of the community but representative of the ethnic minoritiy lawyers who are
. Also, most superior judges are from a
social class and were
educated. IN the late '90's, 75% of
judges had been privatly eductaed and went to university at
or Cambridge. Almost all superior judges have been
for approximately 20 years. This means that other professions have a narrow chance of becoming a judge especially because solicitors struggle to get the rights of
qualification and besides, those under the age of
are unlikely to be chosen as judges and adverts sometimes specify age ranges (e.g. 45-60 for
judges). There's currently no law lords under the age of
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