Chest compressions are to the depth of 5 to 6 cm in the average adult
Chest compressions are performed on the lower third of the sternum
Head tilt, chin lift opening of the airway is a safe technique for all patients
A patient in respiratory arrest with cardiac output requires 10-12 breaths per minute
Chest compressions to rescue breaths with two rescuers are at a ratio of 30:2
Aim for minimal interruptions to chest compression
Chest compressions are performed at a rate of 110 to 140 per minute
Chest compressions are to the depth of 9 to 10 cm in the average adult
Two rescue breaths should be administered before initial chest compressions
In adults, chest compressions to rescue breaths are at a ratio of 15:2
The AED will count for 4 minutes before it next analyses the rhythm
2 minutes of CPR is delivered before connecting the defibrillator
AEDs require a lot of training to be used
CPR should be stopped while the pads are placed on the patient’s chest and the connector plugged into the AED
As soon as the shock is delivered, commence CPR again immediately
Requires a head tilt manoeuvre for insertion
Is one type of supraglottic airway
Protects against aspiration
Is suitable for patients with high airway pressures or full stomachs
Is rapidly and easily inserted in most patients
In Rugby players, rapid breathing is most often due to chest wall injuries
Medical problems, e.g. a player with asthma, may result in increased respiratory effort
Central cyanosis is a sign of inadequate oxygenation
Peripheral cyanosis in the cold is often due to inefficient breathing
Normal resting respiratory rate is 12 to 16 breaths per minute
Assessment of skin, e.g. pale, cool and clammy
Pulse checks being essential to assess a player’s circulation
Agitated or confused patients with no mechanism of head injury
Patient is breathing fast with no obvious chest wall injury
Looking for evidence of external haemorrhage
Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
Cardiogenic (failure of the heart)
Neurogenic (spinal cord injury)
Emotional stress after an accident
The player's eyes are not opening, he is making incomprehensible sounds and withdraws from painful stimulus. His GCS is 7/15
The player’s neck should be protected initially with in-line immobilisation
It is important this athlete is given oxygen as soon as possible
The player’s airway can be presumed to be safe
You require at least four more trained people to help you
Ice packs to the back of the neck or the bridge of the nose may help arrest bleeding
Epistaxis should be treated with the athlete’s head tilted backwards
Must always be treated with nasal tampons
Athletes should be advised not to pick, snort or blow their noses after epistaxis
Players who develop a septal haematoma should attend an emergency department as soon as possible
Racoon/panda eyes are an immediate signs of a basal skull fracture
Occlusion is an important part of the mandible assessment
Facial fractures can result in haemorrhagic shock
Avulsed teeth should ideally be put back into the socket
Sub-conjunctival haemorrhage can indicate a skull fracture
Those with a suspicious mechanism of injury
An asthmatic player who slumps to the ground after running
Those with loss of movement in their arms or legs
An unconscious player after a collision
A player with pain in the middle of their neck
In-line immobilisation should be applied after completion of the primary survey
May result in inadequate ventilation
The absence of altered neurology excludes a spinal injury
Sizing a semi rigid collar involves measurement from the infra-mental line to the supra-sternal notch
The application of a collar achieves full immobilisation
Can be reduced in the medical room if done immediately
Can cause damage to the axillary nerve
Can be reduced using the Spaso technique
In the majority of cases, a posterior displacement of the humeral head
Requires an X-ray following reduction
Chloramphenicol ointment is recommended for facial wounds
Most sport wounds require the use of antibiotics
Inadine dressings may result in anaphylaxis
50 mls of normal saline is adequate to clean most wounds
Cotton wool is good for cleaning wounds
All wounds require antibiotics
Wounds should be reviewed at 48 hours
A clean toothbrush can be used to remove embedded debris from a wound
Small volumes of fluid are adequate to clean wounds
Facial wound sutures should be removed after 7 to 10 days
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