Pudendal (somatic) nerves excite the bladder body and the external urethral sphincter.
All of the above are true.
Pelvic parasympathetic nerves arise at the sacral spinal cord level and excite the bladder and urethra.
Sympathetic nerves inhibit the bladder body and excite the bladder neck and urethra
None of the above are true.
Nathan first described sensations of awareness during bladder filling.
It has been speculated the sense of imminent micturition arises in the urethra.
Sensations of awareness during bladder distension can be mapped to the urinary bladder.
Bladder filling has been shown to correlate with episodic bursts of sensation and afferent discharge.
All are correct.
characterized by responses to receptive field stimulation.
classified according to ability to respond to a diverse range of chemical mediators.
variable in both morphology and function depending upon species.
All of the above.
silent initially but sensitized during inflammatory processes.
(c) develop rapidly and be relatively short lived.
(b) release a number of inflammatory mediators.
(a) open ion channels in the nerve terminals.
(d) be resolved easily.
In animal models colonic inflammation rarely leads to bladder dysfunction.
None are true.
The mediators, which are responsible for these conditions, have been well described.
This is an example of cross-organ sensitization.
Cross-organ sensitization only occurs between the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder.
all are correct.
additional substances released from efferent nerves include nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.
acetylcholine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) appear to provide the majority of the excitatory input.
release of both acetylcholine and ATP result in smooth muscle contraction.
the majority express acetylcholinesterase enzyme.
beta-3 receptor agonists, via effects on a number of sites, are a promising treatment for overactive bladder.
reflex bladder activity can be modulated by alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms.
alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms control blood pressure and tissue blood flow.
the beta-3 adrenergic receptors are present at a number of sites (both peripherally and centrally).
(c) Purinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in bladder overactivity and bladder pain
(a) It is the main excitatory neurotransmitter for bladder contraction in humans.
(b) It can activate two main families of purinergic receptors: P2X and P2Y
All are correct
b and c are true
bladder accommodation is dependent upon activation of sympathetic pathways.
the sympathetic reflex provides negative feedback.
intravesical pressure measurements are low when below the voiding threshold.
all are true.
bladder accommodation is dependent upon quiescence of parasympathetic efferent pathways.
(d) the urothelial surface cells change shape during bladder filling.
(a) the urothelium plays an important role in accommodating urine storage.
(c) increase of urothelial-mediators during bladder filling can influence smooth muscle tone.
a, c, and d are correct.
(b) the urothelium is only a barrier and exhibits no other functions.
all of the above.
activation of pudendal motoneurons.
activation of external urethral sphincter motoneurons.
activation of afferent input from the urethra or pelvic floor that leads to closure of the urethral outlet.
increased outlet resistance.
(c) effective by modulation of central nervous system pathways
a-c are correct.
(d) a better treatment compared with posterior tibial nerve stimulation.
(a) an effective treatment for refractory overactive bladder
(b) an effective treatment for non-obstructive urinary retention
switching between bladder storage and emptying can occur involuntarily (reflex emptying) or voluntarily.
initial expulsion of urine consists of initial contraction of the urethral sphincter.
reflex voiding only occurs in the normal adult.
none are true.
relaxation of the urethral smooth muscle during micturition is achieved by release of acetylcholine.
a and d are correct
(d) increased urethral afferent activation promoting bladder emptying.
(c) de Groat
the dorsal pontine tegmentum.
the M region.
the pontine micturition center.
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