The majority of reflux detected later in life occurs in females.
Antenatally detected reflux is associated with a male preponderance.
When reflux is detected antenatally, renal impairment is frequently present at birth and is likely due to congenital dysplasia.
Antenatally detected reflux is usually bilateral in boys when compared with that in girls.
Antenatally detected reflux is usually low grade in boys when compared with that in girls.
There is a clear understanding regarding the predisposition of reflux because many of the studies have included patients from different countries around the world.
The frequency of detected vesicoureteral reflux is lower in female children of African descent.
African infants and white infants have a similar incidence of reflux diagnosed on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis.
The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux is equal in children of all races.
The disparity in the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux with respect to race becomes clearer in adulthood.
Once sibling reflux is diagnosed, the indications for correction are different from the indications for treating reflux in the general pediatric population diagnosed after UTI.
On the basis of clinical judgment and the presence or absence of UTI, the patient’s age should be taken into account in regard to the decision to proceed with diagnostic intervention to diagnose sibling reflux.
Siblings who are younger than 5 years of age with normal imaging studies of the kidneys can be managed on the basis of clinical judgment, and it is not absolutely necessary to obtain a voiding cystogram.
Siblings younger than 5 years of age who present with cortical renal defects have the most to lose by febrile UTIs in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux.
It is reasonable to prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis while the decision to diagnose sibling reflux or not takes place.
longitudinal muscle of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
longitudinal muscle of the extravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
circumferential muscle of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
circumferential muscle of the extravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
longitudinal and circumferential muscles of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
4 : 1
3 : 1
2 : 1
1 : 1
None of the above apply.
Constriction of the urinary sphincter occurs during voiding in a voluntary form of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia.
Gradual bladder decompensation and myogenic failure result from increasing amounts of residual urine.
Gradual bladder decompensation and myogenic failure result from incomplete emptying.
All of the above apply.
Anatomic obstruction of the bladder is a common cause of secondary vesicoureteral reflux in female patients.
A sacral dimple or hairy patch on the lower back is not a significant finding in regard to evaluation and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.
The most common structural obstruction in male and female patients is the presence of a ureterocele at the bladder neck.
The most common cause of anatomic bladder obstruction in the pediatric population is posterior urethral valves, and vesicoureteral reflux is present in a great majority of these children.
Patients with neurofunctional etiology for secondary vesicoureteral reflux benefit from immediate surgical intervention to try to correct vesicoureteral reflux.
decreases in bladder wall compliance.
all of the above.
none of the above.
None of the above
All of the above
“curtseying” behavior in girls.
a and c only.
(c) lowering intravesical pressures.
(a) damping uninhibited bladder contractions.
(b) dilating the urethral sphincter.
all of the above.
10 cm H2O.
40 cm H2O.
80 cm H2O.
60 cm H2O.
20 cm H2O.
distorting and weakening the ureterovesical junction.
elevating intravesical pressures.
All of the above
The Heikel and Parkkulainen system
The National Classification system
The Dwoskin and Perlmutter system
The Dwoskin and Parkkulainen system
The International Classification system
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