Chemotaxis- Movement of
towards an area. Both exogenous and endogenous compounds attract cells. Inflammatory cells do this so more cells can be recruited to allow better breakdown of inflammatory agents and clean up via phagocytosis
Targeting inflammatory mediators - Vasoactive amines (histamines) are countered by antihistamines, prostaglandins and leukotrienes are countered by
Interleukin and TNF are countered by anti-TNF antibodies.
The body stops the inflammatory response by having mediators and neutrophils that have short
macrophages that release anti-inflammatory products, removing the stimulus and mast cells and lymphocytes releasing anti-inflammatory products
Repair is hindered in general by poor
- protein is required for collagen production
Vitamin deficiency - C is needed by fibroblasts to make collagen and A is needed for regeneration of the
Mineral deficiency and suppressed inflammation.
In local it is hindered by poor supply of
persistent foreign body and movement
Complications of repair: Keloid formation - excess collagen deposition, contractors- Fibrous scar tissue contracts as it matures, causing poor mobility and impaired organ function caused by fibrous scars
Granulomatous inflammation is special type of
inflammation showing formation of
This is a cluster of macrophages that are involved in specific immune reaction
It is caused by infection, foreign material, reaction to tumours and
Doctors must report these causes of death: The cause of death is
The deceases has not been seen by the certifying doctor within
days of death
The death was violent, unnatural or suspicious. The death may be due to an accident. The death may be due to
by self or others. The death may be due to an industrial disease. The death may be due to an abortion. The death occurred during
or before the anaesthetic had worn off. The death may be a suicide. The death occurred shortly after detention in
The hospital autopsy allows for a very thorough examination of the deceased, the extent of their disease allows for testing for treatment. Also it can be used as an audit so th cause of death can be properly determined. It also allows the monitoring of new
The autopsy can also be used for
Death certificate data is used for
to provide accurate morbidity and mortality data to monitor health of an area or nation
Multistep process. Malignancy is acquired in a step wise fashion - tumour
Counts on accumulation of successive mutations.
4 types of
growth promoting, growth inhibiting, genes regulating cell death and DNA repair genes
Screening- Cancers are graded and staged
Grade is based on degree of
and stage is based on degree of
Cancers are screened as: a prophylactic measure for treatment, detect cancer at pre-invasive stage
Oxygen deprivation, chemical agents, infectious agents, immunological reactions, genetic defects, nutritional imbalances, physical agents and ageing are all
of cell injury. There are several mechanisms of cell injury that depend on the type of injury, the
of injury and the severity of the injury. The biochemical and structural components of a cell are so closely related that multiple secondary effects occur. There are 4 intracellular systems that are vulnerable: Cell membrane integrity, ATP production, integrity of genetic apparatus and
Oedema is the abnormal increase of
fluid. It is around 35% of body water, it is maintained by balance of hydrostatic pressures.
Pulmonary oedema is caused by raised
pressure in the pulmonary capillary bed. Usually caused by failure of the
There is inadequate blood removed from pulmonary circulation. This leads to build up of pressure and fluid accumulates in the alveolar interstitium and eventually the alveolar space
Breathless is the main symptom known as
The build up in the alveolar space leads to increase risk of infection -pneumonia
Cerebral oedema - Caused by disruption of blood flow to the cerebral capillaries, building up pressure. It is seen in vessels surrounding
such as contusions, haemorrhages, infarcts and tumours. Causing an increase in fluid in the brain which increases intracranial pressure and risk of death. It is treated by
the head, infusing isotonic fluids and infuse steroids and osmotic diuretics such as mannitol
Generalised oedema - Widespread of accumulation of fluid in
tissues and serous cavities. Caused by left ventricle failure, nephrotic syndrome or hepatic failure. When skin is depressed, it remains depressed for a while, this is known as
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli. Protective attempt to remove stimuli and initiate healing process. Traditional signs: Dolor-
Rubor- redness, tumor- swelling and function laesa.
It is mediated by different cell types and soluble mediators, acute or chronic, local or
and non-specific. There are unwanted effects:
Locally, it can cause excess tissue damage and scarring. It can have secondary unwanted effects. Systematic inflammatory reactions can occur and can result in secondary multi-organ failure.
Different types of disease involve inflammation: Infection (common cold, TB), autoimmune (Rheumatoid arthritis),
(asthma), metabolic (gout), malignant (host reaction), inherited disease (chronic granulomatous disease) and idiopathic (pulmonary fibrosis)
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