Labels helped both typical and atypical exemplars
Labels helped them categorise typical exemplars
Labels did not help them categorise the typical exemplars, but it did help them categorise the atypical exemplars
Labels did not help them categorise atypical exemplars
All of the above
The level of abstraction
Prototypically of the learning set
3 to 5 months
6 to 8 months
9 to 10 months
1 to 2 months
There was habituation to either a single woman or several women
None of the above
Schrier et al. (1984)
Kluender et al. (1987)
Vonk and MacDonald (2004)
Infants were unable to form category representations of animals or furniture.
Infants were found to form a category representation of chairs that included novel chairs, but excluded couches, beds and tables.
Infants were found to form a category representation of domestic cats that included novel cats, but excluded birds, dogs, horses and tigers.
Both A and B
Infants will prefer instances from novel category B after presentation with exemplars of familar category A, but not prefer instances from novel category A after presentation with exemplars from familiar category B. 3 and 4 month old infants presented wit
7 and 8 month olds
5 and 6 month olds
1 and 2 month olds
3 and 4 month olds
Object examination task was used: familiarisation then novel exemplar from familar vs unfamiliar category.
10 month old infants have perceptual similarity as they spent a short amount of time examining an object from a new category.
10 month old infants have perceptual similarity as they spent longer when examining an object from a new category.
10 month old infants have conceptual insight as they spent a shorter amount of time examining an object from a new category.
10 month old infants have conceptual insight as they spent longer when examining object from a new category.
Infants could recognise objects that they had just been introduced to, compared to objects in their pre-existing knowledge.
Infants were unable to recognise object categories even when they were already familar with the objects used.
They had pre-existing knowledge of object categories they learnt at home.
HOWEVER - these results could have been explained by association instead.
Chimpanzees cannot understand category concepts as they could sort between food and tools.
Chimpanzees cannot understand categories as concepts as they could not sort between tools and food.
Chimpanzees can understand categories as concepts as they could sort between food and tools.
When we encounter a new object we compare it to our prototype: typical exemplars share many features and atypical exemplars share fewer features.
The lack of association between many categories
An abstract representation of a category reflecting the central tendency, or 'best example'.
The inability to represent a category due to the reflection of central tendency
6 months old
4 months old
5 months old
3 months old
너는 정확하게 대답했다.
당신이 잘못 대답했습니다.
너는 시간이 없어.
점수 또는 평점을 저장하려면 로그인하거나 등록해야합니다.
텍스트에 적합한 오디오 언어를 설정하십시오.
단어를 강조 표시하여 학습을 향상시킵니다.
로그인 할 필요없이 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 재생할 수 있습니다. 그러나 점수를 저장하고 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 만들려면 로그인해야합니다. 오디오를 재생하려면 전문 계정에 로그인해야합니다.
학습을 한 차원 높여보십시오. 프로페셔널 계정으로 업그레이드하면 질문을 큰소리로 듣고 다른 많은 혜택을 누릴 수 있습니다.
귀하가 작성한 질문이나 답변에 대한 오디오가 생성됩니다.
많은 사람들이 그들이 배운 것을 듣고 더 잘 배웁니다. 외국어 학습을 위해 우리는 18 개 이상의 언어를 지원했습니다.
지원 언어로는 덴마크어, 네덜란드어, 영어, 프랑스어, 독일어, 아이슬란드 어, 이탈리아어, 일본어, 한국어, 노르웨이어, 폴란드어, 포르투갈어, 루마니아어, 러시아어, 스페인어, 스웨덴어, 터키어, 웨일스 어 등이 있습니다.
또한 단어를 소리내어 읽음으로써 자동 단어 단위 강조 기능을 지원합니다.
Apple App Store에서 볼 Topgrade 응용 프로그램을 선택하십시오.
Google Play에서 볼 수있는 Topgrade 앱을 선택합니다.