is the fundamental unit of the neuromuscular system. A motor unit is composed of a motoneuron (located in the anterior horn of the spinal cord), its axon, and all muscle fibres it innervates. Superposition of electrical activity of several motor units produces the shape of a recorded EMG signal.
is the ratio of energy in the EMG signal to that in the noise (Grimshaw et al., 2007). It can be calculated by dividing amplitude of the EMG signal to the amplitude of noise.
is the technique of recording electrical activity of contracting muscles using surface or indwelling electrodes. Electromyograms (also abbreviated as EMG) are the records of contracting muscles electrical activity.
is the ratio of EMG voltage output to EMG voltage input. Common gain of amplifiers used for EMG recording is 1000-1500. A Gain of 1000 means that the EMG (and associated noise) signal is amplified1000 times.
involves determination of the frequency content of the raw (unprocessed) EMG. A Fast Fourier Transformation (FTT) technique can be used to this end.
in bipolar EMG recording (i.e. recording EMG signal by the use of two electrodes), differential amplification is the process of amplifying a signal detected by one electrode and subtracted from the other electrode [(EMG from electrode 1 – EMG from electrode 2) x magnitude of amplification]. Differential amplification removes noise (unwanted electrical activity/energy detected by recording electrodes) common to the two electrodes and improves signal-to-noise ratio.
can include several stages (e.g. removing of DC offset, rectification, and smoothing). Processed EMG is used to determine time onset of muscle(s) activity, and to quantify magnitude of muscle activity over time (usually windows of 10-200 msec) using measures such as Average Rectified Value (ARV) and Root Mean Square (RMS).
frequency range of the EMG signal which is kept during collection. Offline digital filtering can also be attempted after collection of the raw EMG signal.
is a measure of quality of the amplifier and calculated as the ratio of the differential mode gain and common mode gain. Common mode rejection ratio shows how well the noise common to both electrodes can be rejected from the collected signal.
the frequency range of the EMG signal which is kept during collection. Offline digital filtering can also be attempted after collection of the raw EMG signal.
the process of amplifying a signal detected by one electrode and subtracted from the other electrode [(EMG from electrode 1 – EMG from electrode 2) x magnitude of amplification]. Differential amplification removes noise (unwanted electrical activity/energy detected by recording electrodes) common to the two electrodes and improves signal-to-noise ratio.
To determine the kinetics of such situation, we take benefit of the fact that an object changes its vertical position when accelerated in the vertical position by a vertical force, and by the same token, it changes its antero-posterior position when accelerated in the horizontal position by a horizontal force, and changes its rotational position when accelerated by a moment (torque).
In other words, the object can experience a maximum 3 positions: two linear positions (e.g. vertical and antero-posterior along y and x axis, respectively) and one angular position (around z axis).
is an engineering term for 2D motion. During a general plane movement, an object (body segment) has three degrees of freedom (DOF).
We separate all forces and moments during a 2D movement into three coordinates and solve them separately (Whittlesey & Robertson).
the process of amplifying a signal detected by one electrode and subtracted from the other electrode [(EMG from electrode 1 – EMG from electrode 2) x magnitude of amplification].
is the process by which forces and moments of force are indirectly determined from the kinematics and inertial properties of moving bodies. Inverse dynamics, although incapable of quantifying the forces in specific anatomical structures, is able to measure the net effect of all of the internal forces and moments of force acting across several joints.
FIXED COORDINATE POSITION WITHIN THE LABROATORY OR ENVIRONMENT
STUDY OF BODIES IN MOTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FORCES (STATICS; REST/EQUALLIBRIUM – DYNAMICS; MOVEMENT)
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