Milrinone lactate (Primacor) and amrinone lactate (Inocor) are classified as inotropic agents. They are used only parenterally for the short-term treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). They produce a positive inotropic effect (ie, they increase the force of cardiac contraction) and they produce vasodilation.
produces a positive inotropic action
may be administered orally or parenterally
Finasteride (Proscar, Propecia) is an agent that is administered orally for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is also used in the treatment of alopecia (hair loss) in men, particularly in male patients who have male-pattern hair loss. Finasteride acts to inhibit the formation of 5a-dihydrotestosterone, a potent androgen. It is classified as a pregnancy category X drug. Women who are or may become pregnant should avoid contact with crushed finasteride tablets and with semen from patients using the drug.
Used in alopecia treatment
Pregnancy category X
Employed in the treatment of BPH
Latanoprost (Xalatan) is a prostaglandin F2a analog that is used as an ophthalmic solution to reduce intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye. Altered pigmentation of the iris may occur in 7 to 22% of patients using the drug over a 3- to 12-month period. The drug may be used in combination with other glaucoma drugs.
beta-adrenergic blocking agent
Ticlopidine (Ticlid) is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation that is administered orally, with food, in doses of 250 mg twice daily. Patients using this drug should have a complete blood count (CBC) with differential performed every two weeks for three months to detect neutropenia (decreased number of white blood cells). The drug's antiplatelet effects are not maximal until at least 8 to 11 days of therapy have been completed.
dissolves blood clots
only administered parenterally
inhibits platelet aggregation
Nicardipine (Cardene) is a calcium channel-blocking agent employed in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. It is also indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Alteplase (Activase) and reteplase (Retavase) are tissue plasminogen activators prepared by recombinant DNA technology. They are administered intravenously in order to lyse thrombi in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
stimulates erythrocyte production
produced by recombinant DNA technology
Gold compounds such as aurothioglucose (Solganal), auranofin (Ridaura), and gold sodium thiomalate (Myochrysine) are used to suppress or prevent, but not cure, arthritis and synovitis. Aurothioglucose and gold sodium thiomalate are administered intramuscularly while auranofin is only administered orally. All gold compounds may cause serious adverse effects, including dermatitis, renal damage, and blood dyscrasias.
goserelin acetate (Zoladex)
Tocainide (Tonocard) is most similar to mexiletine (Mexitil). Both are classified as Group IB antiarrhythmic drugs. These are agents that slightly depress phase a and may shorten the duration of the action potential.
Quinidine is an antiarrhythmic agent that derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. As does quinine, quinidine may cause an array of adverse effects collectively referred to as cinchonism.
Budesonide (Rhinocort) and fluticasone propionate (Flonase) are corticosteroids that are employed clinically for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Nedocromil (Tilade) is an inhalational product that is used for maintenance therapy in the management of bronchial asthma.
Sibutramine (Meridia), mazindol (Sanorex, Mazanor), and benzphetamine (Didrex) are central nervous system stimulants used as anorexiants, ie, they are used to reduce appetite.
mazindol (Sanorex, Mazanor)
Colestipol (Colestid) is an anion exchange resin that binds bile acids in the intestine, causing them to be removed in the feces. This causes further breakdown of cholesterol to bile acids, as well as a decrease in lowdensity lipoproteins (LDL) and serum cholesterollevels.
bile acid sequestrant
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Simvastatin (Zocor) is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. It is employed as an adjunct to diet in treating hypercholesterolemia. It is classified in pregnancy category X.
pregnancy category X
Benzodiazepines are believed to act by potentiating the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory amino acid.
interfering with the amine pump
inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase
potentiating the effects of GABA
altering the calcium ion influx into the CNS
altering the sodium ion influx into the CNS
Tolcapone (Tasmar) is a COMT inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Its use has been associated with the potential for the development of hepatic failure. It should, therefore, not be used in patients who have any evidence of liver disease. Baseline liver enzyme studies should be performed before therapy is begun and at two week intervals during the first year of therapy. Such studies should be continued every four weeks during the 12 to 18 months of therapy and every eight weeks thereafter.
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