you need mRNA AND protein synthesis to progress to S phase
mRNA and protien synthesis, DNA replication, favourable conditions
Cell growth, DNA replication, favourable conditions
Cell growth, protein synthesis and favourable conditions
Cell growth, mRNA and protein synthesis, favourable conditions
Cyclin D / CDK6
Cyclin E / CDK2
Cyclin B / CDK1
Cyclin A / CDK1
- INK4 Family – p15,16,18,19 – inhibit CDK4 - CIP/KIP Family – p21,27,57 – INHIBIT CDK6 and CDK2 and CDK1
p21, p27, p57
p15, p16, p18
p18, p19, p21
p19, p27, p57
p18, p21, p27
The selection shadow is a concept involved with the evolutionary theories of ageing that states that selection pressures on an individual decrease as an individual ages and passes sexual maturity, resulting in a "shadow" of time where selective fitness is
Optimum age to learn a new language
Peak survival in the wild
Maximum selection pressure
Reactive oxygen species
Disposable telomere theory
Disposable camera theory
Disposable free radical theory
Disposable barbeque theory
Disposable soma theory
reduced elastic recoil, increase in chest wall stiffness, reduced respiratory muscle strength, reduced pulmonary capillary volume, reduced distensibility of pulmonary arteries, reduced lung surface, reduced responsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia, reduc
Increased responsiveness to hypoxia
Reduced lung elastic recoil
Increased capillary volume
Reduced chest wall stiffness
Estimates mortality of community-acquired pneumonia to help determine inpatient vs. outpatient treatment. Confusion of new onset (defined as an AMTS of 8 or less) Blood Urea nitrogen greater than 7 mmol/l (19 mg/dL) Respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minu
A prognostic score for pneumonia
A prognostic score for Alzheimers
A prognostic score for cancer
A prognostic score for COPD
A prognostic score for glomerulonephritis
Blood pressure (mainly systolic blood) increases with age Larger, elastic artery walls become thicker and stiffer with increasing age
Heart becomes more efficient
Side effects of other medication
Elastic arteries stiffen
Ejection fraction doesnt change at rest - EF: amount of blood squeezed out with each heart beat doesn’t change at rest but the aged heart is less good at upping its game to times when it needs to e.g stress, exercise, in response to illness. contractility
Increased ejection fraction at rest
Decreased beta-adrenergic stimulation
Large arteries stiffen
Left ventricular enlargement
exaggerated response to stimulated carotid baroreceptors - History of falls / blackouts after head turning or in men shaving
a reduced response to aortic stimulation
a lack of response to carotid sinus stimulation
an exaggerated response to carotid sinus stimulation
a reduced response to carotis sinus stimulation
also - ↓ calorific needs Malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies common But usually due to insufficient intake rather than poor absorption
reduced episodes of constipation
reduced liver size
reduced gut motility
reduced stomach acid production
reduced saliva production
reduced taste buds
osmoregulation- feeling thirsty later, ADH responds less well, risk of dehydration seen in clinical practice
reduced risk of dehydration
reduced peak with glucose load
reduced risk of diabetes
increased sensation of thirst
reduced insulin sensitivity
More drug gets into the system, gets into places it shouldn’t and hangs around longer. the most important age related change is the increase in body fat and relative reduction in body water. Reduction in initial dose may be necessary if drugs are mainly d
increased first pass metabolism
increased blood-brain-barrier passage
Reduced first pass metabolism
reduced hepatic clearance
reduced passage across blood-brain-barrier
increased body fat/water ratio
reduced renal clearance
increased renal clearance
increased hepatic clearance
너는 정확하게 대답했다.
당신이 잘못 대답했습니다.
너는 시간이 없어.
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단어를 강조 표시하여 학습을 향상시킵니다.
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귀하가 작성한 질문이나 답변에 대한 오디오가 생성됩니다.
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지원 언어로는 덴마크어, 네덜란드어, 영어, 프랑스어, 독일어, 아이슬란드 어, 이탈리아어, 일본어, 한국어, 노르웨이어, 폴란드어, 포르투갈어, 루마니아어, 러시아어, 스페인어, 스웨덴어, 터키어, 웨일스 어 등이 있습니다.
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