The combined transplantation of adult NPCs with what promoted cell survival and remyelination of spared axons into a rat model of compressive SCI?
Furthermore, the combined transplantation of adult NPCs with minocycline treatment and growth factor delivery promoted cell survival and remyelination of spared axons into a rat model of compressive SCI
Transplanted NPCs were mainly incoporated into what?
Transplanted NPCs were mainly incorporated into the white matter of the dorsal or lateral column and substantially differentiated along the oligodendroglial lineage. Exogenous (NPC-derived) myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive cells were found in close association with endogenous neuronal processes, finally correlating with the recovery of locomotor function
The functional significance of exogenous remyelination in promoting behavioural recovery has been further confirmed by what?
Interestingly, the net functional significance of exogenous remyelination in promoting behavioural recovery has been further confirmed by the recent observation that mice receiving NPC-derived oligodendrocytes isolated from myelin-deficient mice failed to acquire locomotor functionality after SCI
The concomitant use of chondroitinase ABC to reduce the presense of what greatly increased what?
The concomitant use of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to reduce the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) together with NPC transplantation in a chronic model of compressive SCI greatly increased the long-term survival, migration and integration of grafted cell
Several strategies have been devloped to promote regeneration and functional recovery by delivering what?
Several strategies have been developed to promote regeneration and functional recovery by delivering biomaterial scaffolds engineered with cells and/or bioactive molecules (e.g. hydrogels, sponges, single- and multi-channelled guidance tubes, and nanofibre scaffolds)
The implantation of what resulted in significant functional improvement up to 1 year post-engraftment?
Interestingly, the implantation of a scaffold–neural stem cell unit into an adult rat hemisection model of SCI led to overall tissue preservation with limited atrophy and scar formation that finally resulted in significant functional improvement up to 1 year post-engraftment (Teng et al., 2002)
Alternative routes of administration (e.g. systemic) have also been investigated to avoid what?
Alternative routes of administration (e.g. systemic) have also been investigated to avoid the damage to the spared cord tissue at the time of focal cell injection, as well as other procedure-related complications, with the final aim of improving the chances of translation into clinical practise
Injection where lead to signifcantly better behavioural recovery compared to transplanted cells?
After injection into the tail vein of nude SCI mice, human NPCs were able to reach the injury site (Takeuchi et al., 2007), leading to significantly better behavioural recovery compared with SCI mice transplanted intraspinally with NPCs
The shaping of new intraspinal circuits should be tightly controlled to avoid what?
Importantly, the shaping of new intraspinal circuits should be tightly controlled to avoid serious side effects such as aberrant host fibre sprouting associated with allodynia-like hypersensitivity
What might serious side effects of intraspinal circuits such as aberrant host fibre sprouting associated with allodynia-like hypersensitivity might be derived from what?
These latter effects of transplanted NPCs may derive from their ability to release biological molecules able to protect damaged cells and/or promote endogenous CNS repair/regeneration
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown how NPCs can do what?
Indeed, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown how NPCs can release a milieu of biological factors able to attract injured axons and promote the growth of host spinal axons after injury
Strong parallel evidence suggests that undifferentiated NPCs can also influence what?
As such, strong parallel evidence suggests that undifferentiated NPCs can also influence the injury environment at the spinal cord through the establishment of functional interactions with endogenous neural and immune cells
The transplantation of mouse NPCs both provided a cellular substrate and secreted what?
On the one hand, the transplantation of mouse NPCs both provided a cellular substrate and secreted several neurotrophic factors (e.g. nerve growth factor [NGF], brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor [BDNF] and GDNF), leading to substantial host axonal re-growth (Lu et al., 2003)
Adult NPCs themselves were shown to induce what?
Adult NPCs themselves were shown to induce the up-regulation of neurotrophic factors and chemokines such as BDNF, NGF and LIF, and inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α
NPCs, engineered to express a human NT-3 capable of binding to both trkB and trkC, showed what?
NPCs, engineered to express a human NT-3 capable of binding to both trkB and trkC, showed increased survival and enhanced myelin formation, although they led only to a modest improvement in locomotor function, when transplanted into a chronic SCI model (Kusano et al., 2010)
Apple App Storeで表示するTopgradeアプリを選択します。